The hardest substances in the human body are the teeth. These play an important part in speech, besides helping a person in chewing. You can get more information regarding the functions of the teeth from a specialist attached to a multispecialty dental clinic. The following are the different parts of a tooth:

  • Enamel: This is the white outer part of the tooth and is the hardest. Calcium phosphate, a rock-hard mineral, is the main component of the enamel.
  • Dentin: The layer under the enamel is dentin. There are microscopic tubes in this hard tissue. Cold or heat causes sensitivity or pain by entering the tooth through these paths when the enamel is damaged.
  • Pulp: The living, softer inner structure of the tooth is the pulp. It has blood vessels and nerves running through it.
  • Cementum: Binding the roots of the tooth firmly to the gums and jawbone is the function of the cementum, a layer of connective tissue.
  • Periodontal ligament: The tooth remains fixed tightly with the jaw by this tissue.

There are 32 teeth in a normal adult. All these (except the wisdom teeth) erupt by around 13 years of age.

  • Incisors (total 8 in number): These are the teeth located in the middle of both the upper and lower jaws.
  • Canines (total 4 in number): These are the pointed teeth located just outside the incisors.
  • Premolars (total 8 in number): These are the teeth between the canines and molars.
  • Molars (total 8 in number): These are the flat teeth located in the rear portion of the mouth and are best at grinding food.
  • Wisdom teeth or third molars (total 4 in number): At around 13 years of age, these teeth erupt. The dentist often surgically removes these to prevent the displacement of other teeth.

The root of each tooth descends below the gumline into the jaw and the crown of each tooth projects into the mouth.

Tooth Problems

There can be various tooth problems. I recently took one of my friends, who was suffering from a severe tooth problem, to a dental clinic near me for treatment. Some of the problems are:

  • Cavities: Bacteria cause cavities by damaging the enamel and deeper structures of the teeth.
  • Tooth decay: Many diseases of the teeth fall under this.
  • Periodontitis: This is inflammation of the deeper structures of the teeth.
  • Gingivitis: The build-up of plaque and tartar can lead to gingivitis.
  • Overbite: In this condition, the upper teeth protrude over the lower teeth.
  • Underbite: The lower teeth protrude past the upper teeth in this condition.
  • Teeth grinding (bruxism): There can be teeth grinding due to anxiety, stress or sleep disorders.
  • Tooth sensitivity: When the dentin gets exposed, a tooth becomes sensitive to anything cold or hot.


A dentist properly examines the teeth before starting any treatment. The treatment options include:

  • Teeth cleaning: Professional teeth cleaning at regular intervals can prevent various diseases of the teeth and gum.
  • Root canal treatment: It is beneficial when the deep pulp is affected due to damage to the teeth. It is a wise decision to consult the best endodontist in Kolkata for this treatment.
  • Tooth extraction: The removal of a tooth becomes necessary if the damage of the tooth is beyond repair.
  • Teeth whitening: It is possible to make the teeth brighter white by bleaching.

Besides these, there are other treatments also. Visit the nearest multispecialty dental clinic to know more.